The basic operation performed by a retina specialist is called a vitrectomy. Removal of the vitreous is often needed to allow safer access to repair problems with the retina, such as a retinal detachment, remove an epiretinal membrane, repair a macular hole, etc. Sometimes only a vitrectomy is needed to remove blood or to remove floaters.
A retina specialist may also perform intraocular injections for macular degeneration or swelling of the retina. Laser treatment is often required for repair of a retinal tear, treatment of retinal vascular occlusions or complications from diabetes.